Scientific papers

The academic and research partners within our consortium regularly submit scientific and technical publications.


Azof, F.I., Tang, K., You, J. et al.Synthesis and Characterization of 12CaO·7Al2O3 Slags: The Effects of Impurities and Atmospheres on the Phase Relations” Metall Mater Trans B 51, 2689–2710 (2020).

Fabian Imanasa Azof, Michail Vafeias, Dimitrios Panias, Jafar Safarian “The leachability of a ternary CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag produced from smelting-reduction of low-grade bauxite for alumina recovery” Hydrometallurgy, Volume 191, 2020,105184, ISSN 0304-386X,

Fabian Imanasa Azof, Jafar Safarian “Leaching kinetics and mechanism of slag produced from smelting-reduction of bauxite for alumina recovery” Hydrometallurgy, Volume 195, 2020, 105388, ISSN 0304-386X,

James Mwase, & Jafar Safarian. (2020). Investigating the leaching, desilication and precipitation of aluminium tri-hydroxides from a bauxite residue-bauxite by-product slag. Presented at the 38th International ICSOBA Conference (ICSOBA), Zenodo. 

Konlechner, David, Vafeias, Michal, Marinos, Danai, & Mwase, James (2020) First industrial scale mass balance data for the reengineered pedersen process developed within the EU funded project ENSUREAL. Zenodo.

Lazou, Adamantia, Van der Eijk, Casper, Balomenos, Efthymios, Kolbeinsen, Leiv, & Safarian, Jafar (2020) High temperature smelting reduction of bauxite residue and a CaCO3-rich bauxite for aluminate slag production and pig iron recovery. Zenodo.

Lazou, A., van der Eijk, C., Balomenos, E. et al. “On the Direct Reduction Phenomena of Bauxite Ore Using H2 Gas in a Fixed Bed Reactor”J. Sustain. Metall. 6, 227–238 (2020).


Adamantia Lazou, Casper van der Eijk, Jafar Safarian “Smelting reduction of bauxite residue and beneficiation by-product in view of a leachable slag and pig Iron production” 10th European Metallurgical Conference, EMC 2019

Fabian Imanasa Azof, Yongxiang Yang, Dimitrios Panias, Leiv Kolbeinsen, Jafar Safarian “Leaching characteristics and mechanism of the synthetic calcium-aluminate slags for alumina recovery” Hydrometallurgy, Volume 185, 2019, Pages 273-290, ISSN 0304-386X,


Ksiazek Michal Tomasz, Ringdalen Eli, van der Eijk C, Høgaas Per Helge “Iron removal from bauxite ores” Proceedings of  2nd “Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices” conference. Download

Vafeias, Michail, Marinos, Danai, Panias, Dimitrios, & Safarian, Jafar (2018) “From red to grey: revisiting the Pedersen process to achieve holistic bauxite ore utilisation (Version Final)” Zenodo.

Research leading up to ENSUREAL


Fabian Imanasa Azof, Leiv Kolbeinsen and Jafar Safarian, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway: “The Leachability of Calcium Aluminate Phases in Slags for the Extraction of Alumina”, Travaux 46, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference. Download

Hanne Sellaeg, Leiv Kolbeinsen, and Jafar Safarian, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, on “Iron Separation from Bauxite Through Smelting-Reduction Process Download


Jafar Safarian and Leiv Kolbeinsen, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, on “Smelting –Reduction of Bauxite for Sustainable Alumina Production”, and “Sustainability in Alumina Production from Bauxite within the 2016 SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING SUMMIT AND EXHIBITION Volume 5: Starkey Intl. Symp. / Mineral Processing Edited by: F. Kongoli, P. Kumar, A. Senchenko, B. Klein, A.C. Silva, C. Sun, W. Mingan, FLOGEN, 2016( Download paper on smelting  Download paper on sustainability